✅ What is Router and how does it work? [Full Detail]

 What is Router and how does it work?

You can think of a router as a small electronic device that connects or connects several computer networks together through a wired or wireless connection. Understand that Router connects a computer network to another computer network or connects a computer network to the Internet.

Do you know what is router and how does this networking device work? If you have any other questions along with these questions in your mind, then I am going to answer them in today's article.

You must have heard the name of Router because it is used for Internet nowadays. Whenever you access the Internet except the mobile network. Then you understand that you are accessing the Internet from a Wireless Networking Device.

Still don't believe my words. You once ask anyone, brother, do you use any device for WiFi. His answer will definitely be related to today's article. The question also comes, what is the work of this device.

Think you are a post man and your job is to deliver letters to different houses everyday. But you can send a letter only when you have their address and with this you will also know the way to go to the house of the letter.

What is a router with a letter that works to transmit data to the receiver. Let us now know in detail about this networking device.

What is a Router?

What is Router and how does it work?

Routers are small electronic devices that connect multiple computer networks through a wired or wireless connection, simply put, a router connects a computer network to another computer network or connects a computer network to the Internet. , so the location of the router is between your modem and the computer.

Router is a hardware networking device, the first router was developed in 1974. Router is used to connect the network.

The router must be connected to the modem in order for the network to connect to the Internet, therefore, most routers have a specific Ethernet port that is designed to connect to the Ethernet port of a cable or DSL modem.

Router is a hardware networking device. It is used in the network. Whenever any data that travels from one network to another in the form of a packet.

Then the Router receives the packet data, and after analyzing whatever hidden information is in the data packet, forwards it to the Destination Device. This networking device is used to connect different networks in wire or wirelessly.

As you would know Computer Internetwork follows the OSI Model. Router works on the Network Layer out of the 7 Layers of the OSI Model. I told you this device is made of hardware and software.

It has an Internet work Operating System, CPU, Memory Storage and some I/O Ports as you must have seen. This operating system is not like Windows or MAC. Routing Algorithm and Routing Table are stored in Storage Memory.

Also Read: What is a Computer? | Definition, History & Features (Full Detail)

How Router Works?

What is Router and how does it work?

Basically, the function of a router is to connect the device to the network, for which the router forwards the data packets to these different devices.

Now this data can be sent between different devices or from the device to the Internet. Now this is possible because the router assigns a local IP address to all the devices connected to the network.

This process ensures that the data sent through the packet finally reaches the right place. Don't just disappear with networking.

If we understand it with the example of an offline world, just as the job of a postman is to deliver a letter or package to the right place, in the same way the router also transmits the correct information to the destination.

A unique number is assigned to each location by the routers for this purpose! So that on the basis of those numbers the packages can be sent to the right location.

If you have to return that data to the Sender or you want to send a package of your own, a Router also does this work. It is to be understood here that the router transmits all the data packets one by one to their location.

But the router is able to do this work very fast, so that when multiple devices send data simultaneously, it is not known whether the router is doing its work or not.

A Router also connects many networks and also maintains its Routing table. maintain means keeps updating. Each router keeps information about the router around him.

Routing Protocol resides in all Routers, with the help of which they communicate with each other. And along with this share the information of their connected networks among themselves, update the routing table. This is how this networking device works.

So in this way you must have understood that after all, how the outer follows this whole process to deliver the data packets. How does a router work? After understanding this, now we will know about the components present inside the router! Let's know.

Also Read: Types of Computer Did You Know?

Components of Router?

What is Router and how does it work?

what is router?

As you know, its information has been given in this article above. This is a specialized computer. It also has different parts. Whose names are given below.

  • Central Processing Unit (CPU)
  • Flash memory
  • Non-Volatile RAM
  • RAM
  • Network Interfaces
  • Console

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

CPU which is a brain, it runs special software named OS. There are some OS like Junos, Juniper RUN Routers and Cisco IOS runs Cisco Routers. This operating system manages all the components of all the routers.

The CPU is an important part of all types of electronic devices. Similarly, it also plays an important role in the router because the CPU of the router is responsible for managing all the components of the router.

Flash Memory :

Every electronic device requires memory in which the operating system is stored. Compare Flash memory with computer, then it is a hard disk only. This Flash memory contains Routing Algorithm, Routing Protocol, Routing Table Store.

Flash memory serves to hold the images present in the operating system. Flash memory also serves to retain the content in the event of a restart of the router.

Non-Volatile RAM:

You must have understood from its name that it is Memory Permanent. Inside it is the back up and startup version store of the operating system. Whenever the router boots, programs are loaded from this memory itself.

The function of the ROM found in the router is to store the operating system software in addition to storing the bootstrap details of the router.


Whenever the router is on, then the operating system is loaded into RAM. After this the Router determines the Routes. From other Routers it sees Routes Information (via RIP RIP (v1 and v2), OSPF, EIGRP, IS-IS or BGP).

ARP tables, routing tables, routing metrics and other data are stored inside RAM. ARP tables, routing tables, routing metrics With the help of these, Packet Forwarding Process Speed ​​is done.

RAM present in the internal part of the router is used to store routing tables as well as configuration files, caching and buffering details. RAM also plays its role in case the router is switched off or restarted.

Network Interfaces:

There are always many network interfaces in routers. There are many drivers in the operating system. With the help of these drivers, the routers get to know in which port which network's WIRE is connected. There is the ability to learn Routes from other Routers and the packet is transmitted on the correct route.


All the work of managing and configuring the router is done in the console itself. Configuration and troubleshooting commands are given from the console.

Functions of Router?

Now let's know about the functions of Router :-

  • Prevents LAN from broadcasting.
  • It works like the default gateway.
  • Protocol helps in translation
  • Works to create a route in the middle of the network.
  • Works to deliver data from sender to receiver
  • Works to connect two networks.
  • Keeps on making loop free path.
  • Finds the shortest path to reach the packet to the destination.
  • Router works at Network Layer or Layer 3 in OSI Model
  • It connects many networks to each other and works to send data from one network to another.
  • Router provides a high-speed internet connectivity with the help of many types of ports like- Fast-ethernet, STM link port etc.
  • It is used in both local area network (LAN) and wide area network (WAN) networks.
  • The main components of the router are the Central Processing Unit (CPU), Flash Memory, RAM Memory, Network and Interface Card etc.
  • Routers are slightly more expensive than other networking devices such as Hub, Switch and Bridge, their popular manufacturers are Cisco, D-Link, Juniper and Nortel.

Routing Table

Routing Table is made up of many rules, as its name is Table. That is why it always remains in the form of a table. It is used to determine in which direction the packet will be sent in the Internet Protocol network.

All the IP enabled devices like Router and Switches all use Routing Table.

The Routing Table contains all the information that can be used to select the best path to send the packet to the destination. Source and destination information is kept in every packet.

After the packet is received, the network device scans the packet and matches the information received with the Routing Table entry. After this, to which network device this packet will be sent next, it is determined.

Routing Table Table contains the following information

Destination: The IP address of which destination to send the packet to.

Next hop: IP ADDRESS of the next network device

Interface: The interface of the network in which the packet is sent is known.

Metric: How much will be the cost of all the routes present in the routing table and it is easy to know from which route it will cost less to send the packet.

Routes: All the connected networks or other devices with routers have information and information about the routes.

Routing tables can be maintained manually or dynamically. The table of static network devices does not change until the administrator changes.

Devices in Dynamic Routing make their own Routing Table and also maintain it. For this, devices use Routing Protocol. They also exchange information with each other.

Types of Routers?

  • Broadband Routers
  • Wireless Router
  • Edge Router
  • Subscriber Edge Router
  • Inter Provider Border Router
  • Core Router

You will get to see different types of routers in the market. According to the use they have been separated. Let us know about them in detail. ,

Broadband Routers

Broadband Router can do many types of work. They are used to connect computers and connect them to the Internet.

If you want to connect your phone to the Internet through Voice Over IP Technology. So you understand that there you have to use Broadband Router for this VoIP connection. These are a special type of Modem which also have Ethernet and Phone Jacks.

This type of router is used more in offices than at homes, these routers are used to provide high speed internet access to desktop systems, they have many Ethernet ports.

In which you can use the internet by connecting one end of the LAN cable to your computer or laptop. Broadband router is setup by the internet service provider.

Wireless Router

Wireless Router Nowadays everyone knows about them. They are used more in home, office, college.

Do you know that you are currently accessing the Internet from this Wireless Router only. This wireless router creates an area of ​​​​wireless signal and all the computers, tablets, mobile phones in this area can use the Internet.

Keeping in mind the security, there is a Password System in them. Password and IP address are used for security. You must have seen when you use WiFi. Then you need to enter a password before you can connect to a WiFi. This is its security feature.

The wireless router is used for internet connectivity in the homes that we take, it provides Wi-Fi connectivity through which we use the internet in our smart phones, laptops, tablets and other Wi-Fi devices. able to do

Apart from our homes, they are also used for wireless connectivity in the office, their range is from 150 feet to 300 feet.

You can think of it somewhat like a hot spot of your smartphone, where you can control the password or the number of devices to secure your connection.

Edge Router

This type of router is placed on the side of the ISP (Internet Service Provider). Configure external protocols such as BGP (Boarder Gateway Protocol) with another ISP's BGP.

Edge routers are low-capacity routers that work on network boundaries, they connect internal networks to external networks and are capable of transmitting data packets between networks.

It uses Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) for connectivity, also called access router.

Subscriber Edge Router

Subscriber comes under the Edge Router end user (Enterprise) organization. It is configured to broadcast external BGP as the provider's AS

Inter Provider Border Router

Such Routers are taken to connect ISPs to Apsa. Like Airtel with Reliance and Vodafone with Jio. It maintains the BGP session.

Core Router

The router that works like the backbone of the LAN network is called Core Router. This is for interconnecting different Distributed Routers. Meaning if there is a company which will have many routers which will be in different locations. 

Core Router is used to connect all these routers together. Its name is also Core for this reason.

Core routers are those routers that can route data within a network but are not able to route data between other networks. It helps to link all the devices present in a network, hence they are called the backbone of the network.

What is the use of Router?

Routers have many uses. The most important uses include that it controls the flow or impact of data, that too through the use of Layer 2 addresses. At the same time, it provides segmentation in Layer 2.

Router is a hardware network used for network sharing, it is necessary to use a router to share the Internet within your LAN (Local Area Network). When you choose a router, it's better to have some considerations like modem, type and budget.

What is the function of Router?

The router mainly performs two functions:



Let's understand them a little better


The router receives the data packets through its input port after which it checks the headers of those packets where it performs some of its basic functions on that data.

And checks in the routing table that which is the best output port for those data packets, after which it sends the data to that output port.



Routing is the process through which the router detects which path is best for the data packets to reach its destination, for this it maintains a routing table which is created by the router through many algorithms.

Now you must be thinking what is the routing table, whose router uses so much, so let's understand it so that it can be understood very well.

What is TP Link Router?

TP Link router is actually a router made by TP Link company. TP Link manufactures routers and other networking devices. The main competitor of TP Link router is D Link router.

What is the application of router?

Router's application means that, this application is used for routing instructions, so that it can be known from where the shipments are originating and where they are being delivered. At the same time, the information about the number of destination points at which it is being delivered is also known from this.


It has always been my endeavor that you get correct and accurate and complete information. You know today what is a router and how does it work. Right now it is already present inside computers. In future, the speed of the routers and the Routing Protocol will be taken care of as much as possible.

It is hoped that you must have liked this article, how did you feel, you must tell below. If you want to ask any question now, then definitely write in the comment box below. If you want to give any suggestion or advice, then definitely give it which is very useful for us.

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